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INTRODUCTION. The LandauKleffner syndrome (SLK) is associated with paroxystic alterations of the electroencephalogram which are intensified during sleep, with acquired aphasia and epilepsy, in 7583% of the cases. The syndrome is associated with other features, such as personality disorders presenting as autistic behaviour, cognitive regression and in some cases, motor dysfunction. The epileptic activity appears to be responsible for the disorder. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs is ineffective in many cases, although there may be periods of spontaneous improvement, or there may be permanent sequelas of language. Design. A systematic revision of one case. CASE
REPORT. A five year old boy with no previous clinical history had, at the age of four years, presented with behaviour changes and aphasia, accompanied by paroxystic changes on the EEG and nocturnal polysomnogram. On cranial CT there was a midline cyst. He had had no seizures. Treatment. Treatment with carbamazepine led to clinical improvement in behaviour, reduction in the paroxysms and appearance of sleep spindles, but little effect on the degree of aphasia.