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Pseudotumor cerebri: analysis of our cases and review of the literature
INTRODUCTION. Pseudotumor cerebri (PC) is a complex syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure in the absence of any space occupying lesion, usually self-limiting, but often relapsing. Diagnosis is based on a record of intracranial pressure of over a limit of 250 mmH2O. Morbidity is basically due to possible loss of vision associated with atrophy of the optic nerve. When the aetiology is unknown this clinical condition is known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
PATIENTS AND METHODS. We describe the principal characteristics of a series of patients who were admitted to our department with the diagnosis of PC and review the relevant literature.
RESULTS. Altogether 14 patients (12 women and 2 men) were admitted with the diagnosis of PC. In 12 patients the disorder presented with headache, with or without associated symptoms of disorders of vision. The main visual symptoms were transient darkening of vision, scotomas, photopsias and reduction in visual acuity. The headache was holocranial, continuous and well-tolerated or alternatively uni- or bilateral, pulsatile, moderate, with or without photophobia, and with or without nausea and vomiting. Bilateral papilloedema was seen in all patients. In one case there was also bilateral facial palsy and neck rigidity. In four cases visual field measurement were abnormal (inferoneasal scotoma, bilateral concentric reduction). Progress was poor in only one case.