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INTRODUCTION. It has been suggested that storing information in the brain takes place by means of changes in synaptic communication efficiency, which is known as neuronal plasticity. Plastic events include changes in the function, structure, distribution and number of synapses, and it has been suggested that these plastic events could be related to learning and memory. DEVELOPMENT. In this work we will review some studies that report structural changes in which experience and learning intervene. In particular, structural changes have been observed in a region of the brain called the hippocampus, which plays a crucial role in the learning and memory of spatial tasks. It has been claimed that the appearance of new synapses after learning a spatial task is linked to the formation of long-term memory and that the functioning of NMDA-type glutamate receptors is needed for both learning and the formation of new synapses to take place.