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Cases of video electroencephalogram: differential diagnosis in newborn infants
This study addresses a number of general considerations on epilepsies and epileptic syndromes that develop in the neonatal period. The chronological limits of this stage of maturation are set out and the pathophysiology of the convulsive phenomenon during that period are briefly analysed. Furthermore, the differences that exist as a result of the incipient level of maturity of the newborn infant’s central nervous system with regard to other ages, and obviously adults, are highlighted. Likewise, reference is made to the percentage values of this pathology, which even vary depending on the gestational age. The clinical expression has a personality that is very different from the other stages of maturation in children, with four predominant manifestations: subtle, tonic, clonic and myoclonic seizures, which have been universally accepted since they were first reported by Volpe. Epilepsies in the newborn infant are not sufficiently well differentiated in the different classifications of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes that have appeared in recent years, although they could well be, since they display enough significance and individuality for that to be so. Three clinical cases are reported, with the aid of video electroencephalographic findings, to illustrate some of the possible neonatal epileptic manifestations.
Benign idiopathic neonatal epilepsyExcitatory neurotransmittersInhibitory neurotransmittersNeonatal epilepsyNeonatal epileptic encephalopathiesNewborn infantEpilepsias y síndromes epilépticos