Bases of deep brain stimulation
Introduction. Deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy that is being used in an increasing number of indications. The mechanisms by which it exerts its therapeutic effect are still largely unknown, although there is increasing evidence of its influence at various levels.
Aim. To review the existing literature on the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation.
Development. Deep brain stimulation acts on brain tissue that is stimulated at various levels: molecular, cellular and neural networks. Spatial, temporal and electrical factors are involved in its effectiveness, but it mainly seems to perform its function by replacing anomalous firing patterns, which are present in certain neurological and psychiatric diseases. Other mechanisms, such as neuroprotection or neurogenesis, remain under study.
Conclusions. Although many of the effects by which deep brain stimulation acts on the brain are still unknown, it seems to be a complex treatment, with large-scale effects, in which the correction of circuitopathies seems to prevail as the main mechanism.
Key words. Beta oscillations. Circuitopathy. Deep brain stimulation. Electrode. Neural networks. Volume of tissue stimulation.