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GABA: a functional duality? Transition during neurodevelopment
INTRODUCTION. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory-type neurotransmitter and its actions are mediated by ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) type receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the tissue of the central nervous system.
AIM. To review the structure of GABA receptors and their involvement in physiological processes in the central nervous system. DEVELOPMENT. The study addresses the structure and diversity of the GABA receptors, especially during neurodevelopment, and reference is made to the excitatory and inhibitory nature of GABAergic transmission, where the participation of the cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2 plays a key role in this functional duality in the transition from an embryonic to a post-natal state. Likewise, the interest in GABA receptors as a pharmacological target for clinical use is also discussed. This is manifested by the presence of under-explored allosteric modulation sites in the aforementioned complex-receptor.